A gum graft is a collective name for surgical periodontal procedures that aim to cover an exposed tooth root surface with grafted oral tissue. There are several different techniques and several different names for each procedure including connective tissue grafting, periodontal plastic surgery, free gingival graft, etc.
Exposed tooth roots are usually the result of gingival recession due to overly aggressive brushing, genetically thin tissue, roots that are prominent, orthodontic treatment as well as a variety of other issues.
Here are some of the most common types of gum grafting:
- Subepithelial connective tissue graft – This procedure is commonly used to cover exposed roots. Tissue is removed from the underlying layer of the palate and relocated to the site of gum recession. It is common for the palate to be tender for several days. Some patients often report no pain at all.
Acellular dermal matrix allograft – This procedure uses medically processed, donated human tissue as a tissue source for the graft. The advantage of this is procedure is that there is no need for a donor site from the patient’s palate. However, the result is not as esthetic and long lasting.
Free gingival graft – This procedure is often used to thicken gum tissue. A layer of tissue is removed from the outer surface of the palate and relocated to the area affected by gum recession. This is an older procedure that has a slower, more painful postoperative period and tends to develop more scar tissue than a connective tissue graft.
Reasons for gum grafting
Gum grafting is a common periodontal procedure which is performed predictably with excellent results.
Here are some of the major benefits associated with gum grafting:
Reduced sensitivity – When the tooth root becomes exposed, eating or drinking hot or cold foods can cause extreme sensitivity to the teeth. Gum grafting surgery permanently covers the exposed root, helps reduce discomfort, and restores the good health of the gums.
Improved appearance – Periodontal disease is characterized by gum recession and inflammation. Gum recession and root exposure can make the teeth look longer than normal and the smile to appear “toothy.” Gum grafting can make the teeth look shorter, more symmetrical and generally more pleasing to look at. In addition, adjacent tissue can be enhanced and augmented during the procedure for esthetic purposes.
Improved gum health – Periodontal disease can progress and destroy gum tissue very rapidly. If left untreated, a large amount of gum tissue can be lost in a short period of time. Gum grafting can help halt tissue and bone loss; preventing further problems and protecting exposed roots from further decay.
What does gum grafting treatment involve?
The gum grafting procedure is usually performed under local anesthetic. The exact procedure will depend much on whether tissue is coming from the patient’s palate or a tissue bank.
Initially, small incisions will be made at the recipient site to create a small pocket to accommodate the graft. Then a split thickness incision is made and the connective tissue graft is inserted into the space between the two sections of tissue. The graft is usually slightly larger than the recession area, so some excess will be apparent.
Sutures are often placed to further stabilize the graft and to prevent any shifting from the designated site. Surgical material is used to protect the surgical area during the first week or two of healing. Uniformity and healing of the gums will be achieved in approximately six weeks.
If you have any questions about gum grafting, please ask your Periodontist.